Taking the mystique out of the Black Box for AI in medicine

Deep learning (DL) is the top performer in data-intensive tasks [1, 2] and thus has the potential to improve personalized, predictive, precise, and preventive health enabled by multiple state-of-the-art measurement technologies and big data. For instance, DL has been shown to surpass human performance in pathology [3] and Electrocardiogram (ECG) [4]. However, in contrast to…

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