ABSTRACT
Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications
in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine,
and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2018;71:2668–79) © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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Kipp W. Johnson, BS,a,b Jessica Torres Soto, MS,c,d,e Benjamin S. Glicksberg, PHD,a,b,f Khader Shameer, PHD,g
Riccardo Miotto, PHD,a,b Mohsin Ali, MPHIL, a,b Euan Ashley, MBCHB, DPHIL, c,d,e Joel T. Dudley, PHDa,b