PREFACE This book with the accompanying compendium is designed for anyone who is interested in a comprehensive primer on the principles and application of artificial intelligence in healthcare and medicine. The readers include the dedicated but busy clinician, the interested data/computer scientist, the astute investor, the inquisitive hospital administrator and leader (from CEO to CIO and others), and any curious patient and family member. In short, it is written with everyone in mind.

The sections of the book are designed to provide a comprehensive framework for anyone who is interested in understanding both artificial intelligence as well as the aspects of artificial intelligence that would be relevant to biomedicine and healthcare. There are commentaries by experts to add a personal dimension to the book.

The first Introduction section elucidates the basic concepts of artificial intelligence and explores the relationship between neuroscience and artificial intelligence.

The second section of the book delineates the early years of artificial intelligence and the history of artificial intelligence in medicine during this early era. The genesis of AI and its application is medicine is key to the understanding of state of the art today.

The third section details the current era or state-of-the-art of artificial intelligence as it stands today in 2018 and covers basic elements of algorithms, big data, cognitive computing, and deep learning (the A,B,C,D of the current AI era). Additional key concepts such as natural language processing and internet of things are also included in this section. Following this background of AI, the concepts of artificial intelligence in medicine such as how doctors and machines think as well as the nuances of healthcare data and databases are described. Deep learning, the workhorse of AI in this era, as it relates to healthcare, is separately explained. Applications of AI in medicine in six areas are then summarized in the subsequent subsections. Following this orientation, AI in medicine as it relates to various subspecialties is then separately discussed for a number of subspecialties. The future of AI and applications in medicine is then covered in the fourth section of the book. The future of AI is discussed in terms of future elements such as augmented and virtual reality and internet of everything. Additional key concepts such as virtual assistants and quantum computing are also covered. The future of AI as it relates to medicine is separately discussed, followed by a special summary of the ten essential problems and solutions for the AI paradigm in medicine to be successful


The last section of the book is a compendium of useful resources including: key references, glossary of key terms, tutorial of computer programs, and a list of companies in AI in healthcare. An appendix of useful tools for evaluation of AI in healthcare companies as well as AI strategies in healthcare organizations is included.

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